Drama is a literary term that comes from a Greek word meaning action. It can be interpreted, “drama is an action that is performed on stage with the characters in front of the audience”. It was originally embraced by Greek religion as acting in the presence of a god to please him. They mostly write tragedies and comedies. In English literature, the beginning is also associated with religious drama____ liturgical drama, mystery drama, miracle drama, morality drama, tragedy, comedy, and modern drama. The modern era divides it into full-length plays and short plays.
The following are the most important elements of drama:
01. Stage :
This is the most important element and without it the drama would never be shown. It was the name of the place where the play was played. shaped like an arc with various doors to enter and exit. Characters come in one door, do their part and exit another. if we think broadly we find two stages, one for the characters and another for the audience but the audience stage is different.
The audience watched the drama and praised the actors. His acting was watched from both sides. a person has full action; while others have full reactions expressed in words, gestures, and feelings that roll up different ideas in the minds of the audience.
02. Plot :
This is an event deal. The author makes ideas into his mind without a line from whom he is making the story. So the plot is a series of events or actions that are collected and made a story. The scriptwriter divides the plot or events into three different parts____ exposition, middle or content and ending.
I. Introduction or Exposition: Found or placed in the first act or beginning of a play. There, all the main characters and issues of the written play are introduced to the audience. The audience easily understands the relationship and movement of the drama. It is a big help for him to give positive and negative feelings to actors according to categories. The main problem is to get to know and grow into the body of the drama.
ii. Middle or Body: In this realm of conflict, ups and downs occur. It’s a body of drama, heroes and villains come face to face and speed up their thoughts or tricks whether it’s positive or not. In it the audience is familiarized with the internal and external conflicts of the main character.
The internal conflict is between the hero and his conscience, while the external conflict is between the hero and the villain. Both fight or try to bring each other down. Their struggle reached its peak and now must fall to the end. That is, all conflicts and problems appear on the stage in search of solutions, but in their bodies they are not solved.
I, I, I. Denouement: This is the cathartic or problem-solving stage. As Shakespeare supports the statement that virtue is rewarded and evil is punished. At this stage is the fall of all action. Here the conflict is resolved and after that the character and tension of the audience is released. They all went to the previous level.
03. Character :
The story is told by the characters. Scriptwriters take on characters from all classes—heroes, heroes, villains helpers etc. But the main focus remains on the main characters as heroes, heroes, villains etc. A good set of characters is found, getting the audience feeling with acting.
The struggles of the actors or all the characters add to the help or work of the hero. The hero must go on a dangerous action or adventure and for him other small or large characters make his goal achievable. In this way, the hero succeeded in eradicating evil from society.
All characters work very sincerely. Indeed, they are mostly loyal to their profession. As an example:. The hero is loyal to the deeds of heroin, the true villain to the evil deeds, the servant, the servant to his profession. It is sincerity, devotion, or loyalty that drives their works as real works. In this way, reality for the sake of character prevails in the drama. So, drama is called a reflection of society
04. Dialogue :
The story is written in the form of dialogue, spoken by the characters. The playwright keeps the dialogues simple and short, as the characters pronounce them easily but in one breath. The scriptwriter puts the spirit of attraction. These dialogues have feelings that are felt by the audience, therefore the happiness of the characters must be the happiness of the audience as well as sadness. Sometimes the audience laughs and sometimes cries with tears.
05. Soliloquy :
It is an unconscious and spontaneous power to talk to oneself. It occurs when a person is under the domination of terrible grief or is found in a dilemma, or his mind is seeking an unbalanced catharsis. In such battles, different ideas come out spontaneously and uncontrollably. Such talk made him oblivious to his surroundings, he thought that he was talking to himself and everything was a secret to him, but it wasn’t like that.
He thought the opposite of the fact, because he revealed it to everyone. So soliloquy is the study of human psychology and helps to get acquainted with the inner workings of a person. The playwrights use it with the aim of revealing the character’s deepest thoughts or future plans to the audience. It is simply to expose the mental tendencies of the characters or the limits of judgment which creates curiosity among the readers or viewers.
Plays are not written to decorate shelves, but are written for readers or performed in front of an audience. The audience cannot be separated from the drama. It is the audience who watch and praise the characters and make fans. It is the audience who get the same feelings and emotions. It is the audience who gain awareness of the evil deeds and fight to liberate society.
Undoubtedly, drama provides entertainment and instruction, both for the audience. Dramatists choose themes and actors from that society and represent them in front of an audience. If society is moving towards evil, drama awakens its audience by representing it. So drama is a polished means of elevating the behavior and beings of the audience, because the audience must fight against them and defeat them once and for all. That’s why the audience is as important as the characters.
07. Main Material:
It has been discussed above that writers, as members of society, describe their good and bad deeds. They are true warriors and cultured leaders, trying to lead people to the right path. Whenever they smell a rat, let the public know. Dramatic chooses good deeds as well as bad deeds and appears in front of the audience with great enthusiasm and forced to react. Bad deeds are done in a bitter way, while good deeds are done in an interesting and pleasant way; therefore the audience should welcome it. So society is the abode of endless ideas or subject matter.
08. Supernatural Elements:
In the past it was used in tragedies and comedies, but now it is one day growing in popularity and has become a great source of entertainment in Asian dramas as well as in Europe. Dramatically introduces ghosts, witches, wizards, storms, strange objects or other mighty objects.
The audience watched them with more interest. They are important and add to the heroism of the hero. For example, if the hero fails to find the truth, a ghost or a storm that is dramatically introduced carries some kind of sign of his lover or other who continues his struggle and solves a crucial problem.
Along with that, there are bad signs too, introduced by the dramatic that a hero can become an adventurer by fighting against powerful or easily controllable elements to save his society. This drama remains full of horror and encourages the audience not to give up but fight and the Creator will reward you with success.
It is also accredited as an essential element of drama; drama is never done without costumes as the society in question does. Characters dress according to the dialogue, events and environment. If there is a joker, he must wear a joker costume; if the character is a villain or performs another role, he must wear that outfit and other necessary tools. These make a big impression on the audience, because they appear as symbols for the audience. The audience wears it, when such an act is committed.
The language should be simple and musical, fulfilling the character’s habitual requirements. The playwright wants to convey his central theme to the readers, so he makes dialogues according to the people and their grasping power. People only accept simple and short sentences which are elaborated with similes, metaphors, satire, irony and alliteration. That’s why the language was chosen by taking into account the mentality of the people.
The elements described above are primary and important. Apart from that there is a nice set of little drama elements.